Is a VPN needed in Zimbabwe?

Known for its diverse wildlife, scenic landscapes including the majestic Victoria Falls, and rich cultural heritage, Zimbabwe is a country that captures the essence of southern Africa. However, beneath its scenic beauty and cultural richness lies a complex landscape of digital privacy and government surveillance. This article aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the state of digital privacy in Zimbabwe, focusing on government regulations, social media access, and ongoing surveillance measures.

Freedom of Expression and Censorship

Freedom of expression in Zimbabwe faces significant constraints, particularly in the digital realm. Over the years, the government has enacted several laws that directly impact the freedom of the press and online expression. For example, the Posts and Telecommunications Act of 2000 and the Interception of Communications Bill of 2006 have empowered the government to monitor and intercept private communications. Additionally, the government has taken steps to control artistic freedom by censoring political sentiments expressed through music. In 1996, the National Censorship Commission banned six songs that mentioned issues like employment opportunities, civilian killings, and human rights violations, thereby stifling artistic expression.

Despite constitutional protections, the government has been keen on silencing dissenting voices, especially those criticizing the regime. Journalists and activists often find themselves at risk of surveillance, hacking, and legal repercussions. For instance, during the 2008 presidential elections, government forces hacked into journalists’ email accounts, leading to the firing of eight journalists for alleged failure to support the ruling party. The government has also exerted control over social media platforms, particularly during politically sensitive periods. These actions collectively present a significant challenge to freedom of expression in Zimbabwe, indicating a precarious state of digital rights and privacy in the country.

Government Regulations

Posts and Telecommunications Act (2000)

This Act empowered the Zimbabwean government to intercept private email traffic. Any disparaging comments about the country and its leadership could result in a fine of Z$200,000. However, the Supreme Court ruled sections of this law unconstitutional in 2004.

Interception of Communications Bill (2006)

This Bill aimed to establish a telecommunications agency called the Monitoring and Interception of Communications Center. It required telecommunications and internet service providers to be technically capable of monitoring and covering all associated costs. The Bill was approved in June 2007 despite initial objections over its constitutionality.

Information Communication and Technology Bill (2009)

Proposed in June 2009, this Bill intends to replace existing acts and consolidate ICT regulations under a proposed National Information and Communications Technology Authority of Zimbabwe. Though technically independent, this authority’s role in enacting government policies raises concerns about its true independence.

Social Media Access

Social media platforms in Zimbabwe have come under governmental scrutiny, especially during times of political sensitivity. For instance, in 2016, the Regulatory Authority of the Post and Telecommunications of Congo (ARPTC) requested that companies temporarily block social media services, including Facebook, Twitter, Skype, YouTube, and LinkedIn.

Government Surveillance

Mugabe’s Era

In 2004, former President Robert Mugabe was accused of attempting to censor Zimbabwe’s email traffic. Service providers were instructed to report senders of “offensive” messages to the government. This was seen as an impractical task by service providers and was the second time the government tried to control the free flow of information on the internet.

Surveillance of Journalists

During the 2008 presidential elections, government forces hacked into journalists’ email accounts. The Reserve Bank has an email content manager installed since 2006 that prevents emails with political content from reaching their intended recipients.

Intentional Shutdowns and Censorship

There have been instances of intentional internet shutdowns by the government, especially during critical political events. The most notable shutdown occurred in December 2016 when President Joseph Kabila was supposed to step down, leading to a temporary block of social media in the country.

Data Retention Laws

Data retention laws in Zimbabwe mandate service providers to store user data for specific periods. These laws often lack sufficient legal safeguards to protect user privacy, making them a focal point of concern for digital rights advocates.


The digital privacy landscape in Zimbabwe is marred by the government’s continuous attempts to control and monitor online activity. As the country grapples with socio-political challenges, the issue of digital privacy and freedom remains a critical concern, both nationally and internationally.

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