Is a VPN needed in El Salvador?

Is a VPN needed in El Salvador?

El Salvador, a small but vibrant country in Central America, finds itself at an interesting crossroads in the digital era. Known for its rich cultural heritage and stunning natural landscapes, El Salvador faces distinct challenges and opportunities in the realms of digital rights, internet access, and online freedom.

Freedom of Expression and Censorship

El Salvador’s constitution protects freedom of speech and expression, but the implementation of these rights has not been without hurdles. Instances of online harassment, threats against journalists, and subtle pressures from political quarters have led to concerns about the true extent of free expression in the country. While outright internet censorship is rare, self-censorship due to fear of reprisals is not uncommon.

However, there have been reports of the El Salvador authorities, including President Nayib Bukele, blocking people on social media who criticize the government. This violates their rights to free speech and access to information, and to participate in the conduct of public affairs.

P2P Sharing and Online Content

El Salvador adheres to international copyright laws, and while there is no specific crackdown on P2P sharing or torrenting, the legal framework does exist to prosecute copyright infringement. Most Salvadorans have access to popular streaming platforms, but the high cost of internet service can limit usage.

Government Surveillance and Privacy

El Salvador’s approach to internet surveillance and censorship paints a concerning picture. Perhaps the most alarming revelation came in 2022 when it was disclosed that the Salvadoran government had deployed Pegasus spyware against at least 35 journalists and civil society activists. The potency of Pegasus to hack into phones and extract personal data represents a severe infringement on privacy rights and a flagrant violation of human rights. The government’s utilization of such a tool underscores a willingness to go to extraordinary lengths to suppress critical voices.

While the Salvadoran government has vehemently denied all allegations of illegal surveillance, the weight of evidence paints a contrary picture. The chilling effect of these actions on freedom of expression and press freedom cannot be understated. The international community must remain vigilant, and national civil society must continue to advocate for transparency, accountability, and a digital space that honors the principles of free expression without fear of surveillance or censorship. This new reality adds a layer of complexity to El Salvador’s digital rights landscape, challenging the nation’s commitment to upholding democratic values in an increasingly connected world.

Digital Progress and Challenges

El Salvador’s efforts to embrace digital innovation are commendable. The country’s adoption of Bitcoin as legal tender in 20211 is a notable example of its willingness to explore new frontiers in the digital space. However, the implementation of such initiatives has been met with skepticism and criticism, reflecting underlying challenges in economic stability, regulatory clarity, and public trust.


El Salvador’s digital landscape is a complex mosaic of progress and challenges. While strides have been made in embracing digital opportunities, significant barriers remain. The intricate interplay of political dynamics, economic factors, and societal needs shapes the country’s approach to digital rights and online freedom. Lessons can be drawn from other Latin American nations like Costa Rica, which has successfully navigated similar challenges. The path ahead for El Salvador requires a careful balancing act, marrying innovation with responsible governance, and fostering an environment that truly upholds the principles of digital autonomy and open internet. The international community’s support and engagement can be pivotal in guiding El Salvador toward a more inclusive and free digital future.

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