Mexico’s Struggle for Internet Freedom

In an increasingly connected world, internet privacy has become a vital concern for individuals, corporations, and governments alike. Mexico, with its rich history and diverse population, has not been immune to the challenges associated with preserving privacy in the digital age. As the country’s internet penetration continues to grow, so does the potential for abuse of personal information and violations of privacy.

Internet privacy is essential for protecting fundamental rights such as freedom of speech, freedom of association, and the right to privacy. In Mexico, these rights have been jeopardized by government surveillance, corporate overreach, and a lack of robust data protection laws. Understanding and addressing these issues is critical to ensuring that the internet remains a safe and open platform for all users.

History of Privacy and Surveillance in Mexico

A. The Ley Telecom (2014)

The Ley Federal de Telecomunicaciones y Radiodifusión, also known as the Ley Telecom, was passed in 2014 and has been a controversial law in Mexico since its inception. While it aimed to improve competition in the telecommunications industry, it also introduced provisions that granted the government expanded surveillance powers. The law allows authorities to access and monitor user data in real-time without a warrant, raising concerns about the potential for abuse and infringement on individual privacy rights.

B. The Pegasus Project (2017)

In 2017, it was revealed that the Mexican government had been using advanced spyware called Pegasus, developed by the Israeli company NSO Group, to target journalists, activists, and political opponents. This invasive software allowed the government to access and monitor the targets’ smartphones, including their calls, messages, and other private data. The Pegasus Project is a stark reminder of the dangers of unchecked surveillance capabilities and the need for robust oversight mechanisms to protect individual privacy.

C. Data Protection Laws and their limitations

Mexico’s Federal Law on the Protection of Personal Data Held by Private Parties (LFPDPPP) came into effect in 2010, with the aim of regulating the processing of personal data by private entities. However, the law has been criticized for its limited scope, as it does not cover government entities or adequately address the issue of data retention. Additionally, the enforcement of the LFPDPPP has been weak, with few penalties imposed on those who breach the regulations. This has led to a climate where individual privacy rights are not adequately safeguarded, leaving citizens vulnerable to both government and corporate surveillance.

Government Surveillance and Censorship

  1. The Pegasus Project and its impact on activists, journalists, and politicians

As mentioned earlier, the Pegasus Project is a prime example of government surveillance overreach in Mexico. By utilizing powerful spyware to target journalists, activists, and political opponents, the Mexican government demonstrated its willingness to undermine privacy rights and stifle dissent. This kind of surveillance not only violates the right to privacy but also has a chilling effect on free speech and democracy, as individuals fear reprisal for expressing their opinions or exposing corruption.

  1. Other surveillance initiatives and practices

While the Pegasus Project gained international attention, it is not the only instance of government surveillance in Mexico. Mexican law enforcement and intelligence agencies have been known to use technologies such as IMSI catchers, which can intercept mobile phone communications, and facial recognition systems without proper oversight or regulation. These practices further exacerbate the privacy concerns of Mexican citizens, as they enable the government to monitor individuals without their knowledge or consent.

Censorship and suppression of free speech

  1. Shutdown of (2014)

In 2014, the Mexican government ordered the shutdown of, a website that was created to document and report human rights abuses during the 1st of December 2012 protests against the inauguration of President Enrique Peña Nieto. This action was widely seen as an attempt to silence critical voices and suppress information about the government’s heavy-handed response to the protests. The shutdown of highlights the government’s willingness to use its power to control the narrative and censor information that challenges its authority.

  1. Other instances of online censorship

There have been other instances of online censorship in Mexico, including the blocking of websites related to drug cartels, as well as instances where social media posts have been removed due to government pressure. While some of these actions may be justified in the name of public safety, they also risk setting a dangerous precedent for limiting free speech and information access, ultimately undermining the democratic values that Mexico aspires to uphold.

Corporate Involvement in Privacy Violations

Tech companies’ role in surveillance

  1. Collaboration with government agencies

Tech companies have played a significant role in facilitating government surveillance in Mexico, often cooperating with authorities by providing access to user data or technical assistance. For example, some telecommunications companies have been known to grant government agencies direct access to their networks, allowing them to monitor calls, messages, and internet traffic without the need for a warrant. This collaboration between tech companies and the government raises concerns about the potential for abuse and the erosion of privacy rights.

  1. Data breaches and insecure handling of user data

Data breaches have become increasingly common in recent years, with both large and small companies falling victim to cyberattacks that expose sensitive user information. In Mexico, incidents such as the exposure of voter registration data in 2016 and the hacking of multiple government websites have highlighted the risks associated with the insecure handling of user data. These breaches not only compromise individual privacy but also erode public trust in the ability of corporations and governments to protect sensitive information.

Monetization of personal data

  1. Advertising and targeted marketing

As with many other countries, the monetization of personal data has become a significant concern in Mexico. Tech companies and advertisers collect vast amounts of user data to build detailed profiles for targeted marketing, often without the explicit consent of users. This practice not only intrudes on individual privacy but can also lead to the exploitation of vulnerable populations, such as children or low-income individuals, who may be targeted with manipulative or predatory advertising.

  1. Sale of user data to third parties

The sale of user data to third parties is another way in which corporations contribute to privacy violations in Mexico. Data brokers and other intermediaries collect, package, and sell personal information, often without the knowledge or consent of the individuals concerned. This practice raises ethical concerns and highlights the need for stronger regulations to protect users from the indiscriminate sale of their personal data.

Privacy-Conscious Alternatives

Encrypted messaging applications

  1. Signal

Signal is an encrypted messaging application that prioritizes user privacy and security. Developed by the Signal Foundation and Signal Messenger LLC, it uses end-to-end encryption to ensure that messages can only be read by their intended recipients. By utilizing Signal, users in Mexico can communicate privately without fear of government surveillance or corporate data collection.

  1. Threema

Threema is another privacy-focused messaging app that offers end-to-end encryption for messages, voice calls, and file sharing. With a strong commitment to user privacy, Threema does not require a phone number or email address for registration, allowing users to maintain their anonymity. This makes it an excellent alternative for those in Mexico who are concerned about their privacy.

Privacy-focused search engines and browsers

  1. DuckDuckGo

DuckDuckGo is a search engine that distinguishes itself by not tracking its users or collecting their search history. Unlike other popular search engines, DuckDuckGo does not create user profiles for targeted advertising, ensuring that search queries remain private and anonymous. For privacy-conscious individuals in Mexico, using DuckDuckGo can help minimize exposure to data collection practices.

  1. Tor Browser

The Tor Browser is a privacy-centric web browser that uses the Tor network to anonymize user traffic. By routing data through a series of encrypted relays, the Tor Browser effectively hides a user’s IP address and location, making it difficult for government agencies and corporations to track their online activities. This browser is a valuable tool for individuals in Mexico who wish to protect their privacy while browsing the internet.

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

  1. Benefits of using VPNs

VPNs are a popular method for enhancing online privacy and security. By encrypting user traffic and routing it through a secure server, VPNs can help users avoid government surveillance, bypass censorship, and protect their data from hackers. Using a VPN is particularly important in Mexico, where government surveillance and data breaches are prevalent.

  1. Selecting a reliable VPN provider

To maximize the benefits of using a VPN, it is crucial to choose a reliable provider that prioritizes user privacy and security. Some key factors to consider include the provider’s logging policy, the strength of its encryption protocols, and its jurisdiction. Users in Mexico should research and compare different VPN providers to find one that aligns with their privacy needs and expectations.


Throughout this article, we have explored the various challenges facing internet privacy in Mexico. From government surveillance programs like the Pegasus Project to corporate involvement in data collection and monetization, Mexican citizens face a multitude of threats to their digital privacy. The existing data protection laws have proven insufficient in safeguarding individual privacy rights, and both government censorship and corporate overreach continue to erode the democratic values that Mexico seeks to uphold.

In light of these challenges, it is crucial for Mexican citizens, activists, and policymakers to continue advocating for stronger data protection laws, increased digital literacy, and the adoption of privacy-conscious technologies. By fostering a culture of privacy awareness and supporting open-source and decentralized solutions, individuals can help to counter the power of governments and corporations over their digital lives. The battle for privacy in Mexico is far from over, but with continued vigilance and activism, a more privacy-focused future can be achieved.

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Stefano Obregón


Stefano Obregón is a Mexico native with a passion for digital privacy and cybersecurity. He holds a master’s degree in Computer Science and has spent over a decade researching and advocating for internet privacy rights in Mexico and beyond. Stefano’s expertise in data protection, government surveillance, and privacy-conscious technologies has led him to speak at conferences, contribute to numerous publications, and collaborate with organizations working to safeguard individual privacy rights. In addition to his work on privacy issues, Stefano enjoys exploring Mexico’s rich history and cultural heritage, and he is an avid supporter of local art and music scenes.

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